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GAGNE'S NINE EVENTS OF INSTRUCTION
Patty & Allan
A. Summary of Main Components of the Model
Overview: Robert Gagne was a military research director who formulated his own theories of learning. He was instumental in pilot training in World War 2. Studies indicate that the none learning events are effective in helping students to become independent learners (Faryadi re:Hoskin & Young). He published his book,
Conditions of Learning
, in 1965. Gagne created a nine step model called the "events of instruction," which has become the hallmark of his work, despite other contributions.
Instructional Design Levels
Gagne identified two levels of design, the macro and the micro levels. The macro levels focus on the overall direction of the learning plan. The micro level addressed lesson plans and is the area where the events of instruction are focused.
Five Categories (Dynamic Conditions) of Learning
Gagne also identified five conditions of learning which contribute to knowledge transfer (Faryadi). These include verbal Information, intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, motor skills and attitudes.
Nine Instructional Events
Rendition of Gagne's instructional events showing the nine steps to learning transfer
Gagne's instructional events is a nine step process for instructional design:
Gain learner attention. In this step, we capture the attention of the learner. A thoughtful question or even a startling audio visual effect are examples.
Set objectives. Here, the learning objectives are shared with the learner.
Review prior lesson. By linking prior information or knowledge to new knowledge, long term retention is enhanced
Present Lesson. New knowledge should be presented in chunks and in different media/modalities.
Provide guidance to learner. Examples of guidance include examples, cases, analogies, etc.
Ask for learner feedback or practice. The learner may be asked to demonstrate the new knowledge or skill.
Provide feedback to learner. The instructor should provide immediate feedback (but this is not an assessment).
Assess and evaluate. This is a final assessment with a minimum performance rate.
Enhance retention. Assess whether the learning has been successfully transfered to the work/life environment.
Gagne Nine Events Of Instruction
B. Learning theory that is the basis of the Gagne Model
Behavioralism - not likely because it is based on changing behaviors, although eduwiki states "
This is a
model that also draws from cognitivism."
Constructivism - not likely because there is little reference to developing rules, models, etc.
most likely because it deals with staged processes
leading to changes in memory, thinking and information processing
C. Usefulness of model to e-learning
Pros: Sequential, staged, clear steps
Cons: Doesn't allow learner flexibility to "wander"; might be difficult to administer in a non-sequenced paginated environment. Requires instructor guidance and feedback as requisite steps.
model for many learning situations; roughly follows
(especially, design - implement - evaluate steps), suitable if ad-hoc instructor intervention/participation available. The website, below, illustrates it's use in a fictitious software training program.
Application to the E-Learning Environment:
Why Podcasting is an Effective Instructional Choice
Texas Woman's University.
Podcasts and Gagne's Nine Events of Instruction.
Chart of Gagne's Nine Events of Instruction in Learning Technology
The Nine Events of Instruction
Pennsylvania State University.
Gagne's Nine Events of Instruction: Powerpoint Presentation
Robert Gagne's Nine Steps of Instruction
Gagne's Nine Events of Instruction: An Introduction
Lean Learning Wikispaces.
Gagne's Instructional Events
Innovating research topincs in learning technology: Where are the new blue oceans?
British Journal of Educational Technology, Jul2008, Vol. 39 Issue 4, p738-747.
Martin, Florence; Klein, James; Sullivan, Howard.
Effects of Instructional Events in Computer-Based Instruction
. Association for Educational Communications and Technology, Chicago, IL, Oct. 19-23, 2004.
Robert Mills Gagne
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