Patty & Allan

A. Summary of Main Components of the Model

Overview: Robert Gagne was a military research director who formulated his own theories of learning. He was instumental in pilot training in World War 2. Studies indicate that the none learning events are effective in helping students to become independent learners (Faryadi re:Hoskin & Young). He published his book, Conditions of Learning, in 1965. Gagne created a nine step model called the "events of instruction," which has become the hallmark of his work, despite other contributions.

Instructional Design Levels

Gagne identified two levels of design, the macro and the micro levels. The macro levels focus on the overall direction of the learning plan. The micro level addressed lesson plans and is the area where the events of instruction are focused.

Five Categories (Dynamic Conditions) of Learning

Gagne also identified five conditions of learning which contribute to knowledge transfer (Faryadi). These include verbal Information, intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, motor skills and attitudes.

Nine Instructional Events

Rendition of Gagne's instructional events showing the nine steps to learning transfer

Gagne's instructional events is a nine step process for instructional design:
  1. Gain learner attention. In this step, we capture the attention of the learner. A thoughtful question or even a startling audio visual effect are examples.
  2. Set objectives. Here, the learning objectives are shared with the learner.
  3. Review prior lesson. By linking prior information or knowledge to new knowledge, long term retention is enhanced
  4. Present Lesson. New knowledge should be presented in chunks and in different media/modalities.
  5. Provide guidance to learner. Examples of guidance include examples, cases, analogies, etc.
  6. Ask for learner feedback or practice. The learner may be asked to demonstrate the new knowledge or skill.
  7. Provide feedback to learner. The instructor should provide immediate feedback (but this is not an assessment).
  8. Assess and evaluate. This is a final assessment with a minimum performance rate.
  9. Enhance retention. Assess whether the learning has been successfully transfered to the work/life environment.

B. Learning theory that is the basis of the Gagne Model

  • Behavioralism - not likely because it is based on changing behaviors, although eduwiki states "This is a behaviorist model that also draws from cognitivism."
  • Constructivism - not likely because there is little reference to developing rules, models, etc.
  • Cognitivism - most likely because it deals with staged processes leading to changes in memory, thinking and information processing

C. Usefulness of model to e-learning

  • Pros: Sequential, staged, clear steps
  • Cons: Doesn't allow learner flexibility to "wander"; might be difficult to administer in a non-sequenced paginated environment. Requires instructor guidance and feedback as requisite steps.
  • Overall assessment: Adequate model for many learning situations; roughly follows ADDIE (especially, design - implement - evaluate steps), suitable if ad-hoc instructor intervention/participation available. The website, below, illustrates it's use in a fictitious software training program.

Application to the E-Learning Environment:

Additional Resources: